The man was eccentric; he has been called the Frank Lloyd Wright of economics. An American with his name of course had to be a Norwegian from Wisconsin, which explains his progressivism and contempt for non-productive activity. Until I visited the cabin, all that had never crossed my mind.
We have Veblen to thank for his contributions to the theories of consumerism and the business cycle, and in the Gilded Age he accurately foresaw a U.S. economy that would benefit mainly the very wealthy. He taught at Mizzou for seven years, hating it and calling Columbia â€œa woodpecker hole of a town.â€ For a year he was one of the editors of The Dial, which became a litmag that first published the likes of Marianne Moore.
When Veblen first came to Washington Island he stayed in a boarding house and looked for people who could teach him to speak Icelandic so he could translate an old epic poem. In 1957, for her masterâ€™s thesis, a graduate student collected islanders' memories and stories about the great man, and incidentally was given the books and papers left in the study. Veblen wore really old clothes, people said. But he was generous with money and liked anybody who could teach him anything.
Poet Alice Azure wrote Along Came a Spider (Bowman Books), about her 35-year search to trace her Native American ancestry. She found her spiritual home in the Acadian-MÃ©tis culture of Nova Scotia, where Europeans and the Miâ€™kmaq (pronounced Mic-mac) tribe intermingled in the sixteenth century. While piecing the story together, Azure says she sensed she was â€œbeing sought out by Invisibles as much as I sought them.â€ During the rigors of writing and research, Azure met her spiritual guide, Grandmother Spider, who urged her to complete the work and to write honestly. The conversations with Spider are included in the book. It was all so interesting and so unheard, I let the interview below run to full length.
What drove you to claim a Native American identity when according to your genealogy and DNA test your known ancestry is European? Your genealogical searching was intensive and expensive. Why go to those lengths?
From the time I began a serious search for my Native ancestors (1974) up to the completion of Along Came a Spider (late 2010), I never had a DNA test. With regard to my genealogy, I only knew for sure was that my mother and her folks were from Norway. It was my fatherâ€™s family from Nova Scotia, Canada that presented the genealogical challenges with regard to identifying Miâ€™kmaq ancestors.
Although my father, Joseph Alfred Hatfield, and his grandmother, Celestine Porthier Boudreau, always asserted their Miâ€™kmaq ancestry, it wasnâ€™t until graduate school at the University of Iowa that I decided to learn more about my Native roots. One of my professors, of Miâ€™kmaq ancestry himself, challenged me to research my heritage. I took up his challengeâ€”vigorously, I might add. When I began, in the early 1970s, the American Indian Movement was at its zenith. Many times there were questions about my tribal enrollment, the name of my reservation, the Native names of my family, my clan and why I was interested in working with tribal communities. All of these questions I regarded as reasonable, and I wanted to be able to answer them. So I began by focusing my search on family names.
You belong to the Aroostook Band of Miâ€™kmaq, is that correct? What are the benefits of tribal membership?
I donâ€™t belong to the Aroostook Band. Early on, I applied for membership in the Aroostook Band of Miâ€™kmaq in Presque Isle, Maine. I reasoned that since I would never live in Nova Scotia, it might be worth my efforts to petition for tribal membership in the state where my father had lived and worked most of his life. There were no benefits for me other than to be able to say, â€œThis is my spiritual home.â€ In spite of some encouragement from a staff member from the Aroostook Band, the politics were not in my favorâ€”living in Illinois as I did at the time. In addition, I needed proof of my fatherâ€™s residency in that northern area of Maine. The years he worked as a lumberman, starting with his teen years, were before the advent of Social Securityâ€”so I was facing digging up payroll records, etc. It was too much for me to sustain, to be a family person, stay on top of my career and keep building my family tree.
I have found a â€œhome of the heartâ€ in the Association des Acadiens MÃ©tis-Sourquois (salt water people), based in Saulnierville, Digby County, Nova Scotia, which has granted me recognition of aboriginal status as a person of Acadian descent in Nova Scotia. The â€œEpilogueâ€ chapter of my book, Along Came a Spider, explains the Canadian law with regard to who is aboriginal in that country.
I and many other people of Acadian descent recently have come to the understanding through study, research, and now DNA testing, that from 1604 up to 1755, a hybrid people and culture was born in Acadie (roughly, the Canadian northeast Maritimes) through the cooperative bartering for fur pelts, fish and lumber between French and Miâ€™kmaq people. This new cultureâ€”neither French nor Miâ€™kmaqâ€”developed into what today is called Acadian.
Why have I never heard of the Mi'kmaq? Are they historically a small or isolated group? What are some of the things unique to their culture?
The Miâ€™kmaq are basically a Canadian tribe, so that may be one reason you didnâ€™t know or hear much about them. Historically, they were a powerful group, estimated by Daniel N. Paul in his book, We Were Not the Savages, to be around 200,000 at the time of first European contactâ€”1504. By 1838, disease, warfare and deliberate English policies of genocide and scalp bounties had reduced the people to a population of 1,425 (Paul, 187,188).
What I think is unique about Miâ€™kmaq culture is their wonderful array of creation stories. I most love the ones about magical Powerâ€”â€œ[h]ow to acquire it, how to use it, how to lose it and the consequences attendant upon all of the above.â€ I just quoted from Ruth Holmes Whiteheadâ€™s masterful book, Stories from the Six Worlds: Micmac Legends (13). It is timeless!
When did you understand that you had to write and publish this book?
I began to slip into a serious depression after my husband Alec died February 11, 1993. Also, I couldnâ€™t find employment, and was fast running out of money. Realizing that I was losing my way, I asked for some guidance from my medicine women friends. They took me into the woods, so to speak, watched me, prayed over me and conducted some ceremonies. Thatâ€™s when I saw Spider on my blanket. I knew I had to recount as much as I could, or I would not remember everything. So I recorded in my journal all the happenings of what I call that holy timeâ€”from Alecâ€™s death to November of 1994 when I finally secured a job in the United Way at Green Bay, Wisconsin. At first, I had no intention of writing a book. Increasingly, I found my understanding of Grandmother Spider expanding to such an extent that I began to realize that I was being sought out by Invisibles as much as I sought them. So around 2004 I knew that this amazing, numinous experience in my life had a pattern, had meaning and significance. I wanted to share it. And I believe Spider goaded me on. Sometimes she would sit on the upper left corner of my computer screenâ€”at a time I wasnâ€™t advancing the story. I became very discouraged when I couldnâ€™t find a publisher after about twenty queries. Late in 2009, I submitted an essay to an academic journalâ€”Studies in American Indian Literatures. The editor for that particular issue, Siohban Senier, a professor of English at the University of New Hampshire, asked to see some more of my writing and poems. The rest is history. What a coach she turned out to beâ€”encouraging me to finish the manuscript and send it to Bowman Books.
In the book you mention that many French-Acadians seemed insulted when you asked about Native ancestry. Recently, others have seemed eager to claim that ancestry. Lots of Americans want to do the same. You said you don't know the reason. What is your best guess?
In 1974, when my first husband and I traveled to Nova Scotia to begin my search for Native ancestors, I did â€œcold calling,â€ knocking on doors in Wedgeport where many of my fatherâ€™s people had lived. Yesâ€”it was obvious they were surprised, maybe even insulted when I inquired about Miâ€™kmaq ancestry in the Boudreau surname. That was in the summer of 1974. Father Clarence dâ€™Entremont, the well-known Acadian genealogist, wrote me letters in 1978 saying that there was no Indian blood in the Boudreau line. Stephen A. White, another authoritative genealogist, in a 1977 letter outlining my fatherâ€™s female line, also said there was no Miâ€™kmaq ancestry. They both were wrong. Through a rigorous process of application first to the Kespuâ€™kwitk MÃ©tis Council l (which I resigned from, for lack of communication) then to the Association des Acadiens-MÃ©tis Sourquois, my genealogies have been certified as MÃ©tisâ€”of aboriginal descent. So you deal with the denials, the subtle racismâ€”the outright racismâ€”and go on and do your thing.
I certainly think one has to factor in greed when considering the significant increase of Native American ancestry being claimed through the census. Some of it is said to be due to discrimination by the tribes themselves. It is well-known that tribal governments have the power to enrollâ€”and dis-enroll. Thereâ€™s a lot of discrimination at that end. The new-found casino wealth of a few successful tribes may be driving some of that greed. I think people with Native ancestors who have never interacted with tribal communities may also feel entitled to the meager benefitsâ€”the usual situationâ€”of tribal enrollment. Itâ€™s a lot of work to go through that process. Some of my friends have been persistent and received their cards. For othersâ€”like a granddaughter of Alec, my late husband, enrollment has eluded her, again because of mean-spiritedness.
With regard to the burgeoning of Acadian-MÃ©tis people, I believe it is driven by a sense of history, a pride in having had ancestors who suffered, perished in or survived le grand dÃ©rangement (the savage Acadian Removal of 1755). More and more, the several DNA tests now available are confirming a great variety of haplotypesâ€”which must give the French purists heartburn. In Nova Scotia, we even have our own â€œlost colony of Roanokeâ€ story. Its name was the Fagundes Colony. A group in 1520 set out from the Azores to settle (not to just fish) near the Outer Banksâ€”Cape Breton Island. What happened to them cannot be known at this point, but a whole lot of Acadians are testing for U6a haplotypes, a bloodline that shows up in France only among people deported from Nova Scotiaâ€”who had established themselves there over generations, then were kicked out. Suppose, goes the theory, that the Miâ€™kmaq killed the male settlers and took the women and children into their own camps? The women eventually settled into Miâ€™kmaq life. Mitochondrial DNA testsâ€”which track only the female linesâ€”daughter to mother to grandmother to great-grandmother and so onâ€”would never pick up the paternal Indian lines.
Is Grandmother Spider a spirit guide, or is she a goddess, or--?
I think Grandmother Spider is a spirit guide that comes out of my Native ancestry. In the book, I talk somewhat of another spirit-guide, MW. In retrospect, I think he comes out of my western, or Christian, tradition. Vine Deloria, Jr. in his book, The World We Used to Live In, asserted that spirits from different cultures or traditions are quite compatible. Spider is real. I believe that. I donâ€™t know how else to say this, than to encourage the reader to read my poem â€œBlessingâ€ on page 169 of the book. Other culturesâ€”in Africa and somewhere in the Caribbean, have a Grandmother Spider being. In my book, I use a creative nonfiction style to introduce and close each essay through a conversation with Spiderâ€”always under my arbor. Iâ€™ll never forget the very first time she spun her web on my arbor. The vines were not mature, the moon was shining so bright, and I saw her hanging there on the arbor on a shining web.
Is there anything you would like to add?I include a good bibliography in the book for the reader who may want more information about the ideas or topics I discuss. A glossary is also included to help with some of the words, tribal names and phrases I use. I hope these two aids will add to the bookâ€™s appeal.
Once in a while, after a tiring day, as a sort of nightcap I might pluck from the shelf one of my books and page through, and soon it all comes back: the joy and stress involved in the bookâ€™s creation and completion; the tussle with the universe to extract from it a fitting title; the stories behind word choices, stories only I will ever know; the people who freely gave me their most fragile possession: their trust. My thoughts might run: â€œThat thought was inspired and it reads like it,â€ or I hunt for flaws. â€œThat middle initial should be G, not J; how did I not catch it?â€ â€œShouldnâ€™t have tinkered with that." Last-minute rewrites of my work, even half a sentence, feel and look to me like crudely sewn knee patches on jeans. Musician Les Paul said after a recording session, â€œLeave the mistakes in there; let them know weâ€™re human.â€ Thatâ€™s a great concept, especially when paired with Miles Davis saying about his art, â€œDonâ€™t worry about mistakes. There are none."